CHINA AND AFRICA: WHAT’S THE DEAL? PART 1

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INTRODUCTION

Sino-African economic interactions have aroused keen interest in the global community over the past few years, and there are good reasons for this. In 2011, trade between China and Africa reached US$ 160 billion and investments totaled more than US$ 13 billion. In addition to that there are growing economic, political and even social ties developing between the two parties. Why are Africa and China becoming so close to each other and what does it bode for Africa? Part 1 looks at the history of Sino-African relations, current dynamics and factors informing China’s interest in Africa. Part 2 will explore the pros and cons for Africa in this economic interaction.

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF SINO-AFRICAN RELATIONS

 

1950- 1980

It can be stated that, ‘China-Africa relations got off to a start after the first Asia-Africa Conference in 1955 as Beijing attempted to assert its leadership over the Third World.’ Further as independence movements spread over Arica in the 1950s and 60s, ‘Mao Zedong frequently received friends and organizations from Africa…proclaiming China’s “sincere sympathy and entire support for African people’s fight against imperialism and colonialism”’.[1] Bear in mind that, ‘China supported independent movements in Africa, providing not only moral and rhetorical support, but also weapons and military training’.[2] Some argue that during this period China was, ‘promoting Maoism’ where , the slogan “exporting revolution” became the primary objective toward Africa’.[3] In 1963 and 1964 Premier Zhou Enlai introduced the “Governing the Development of Relations with Arab and African Countries and the Eight Principles of Economic Assistance” which clearly designated China’s political stance towards African countries and marked the formation of China’s African policy’.[4], [5]  By the end of the1970s, 44 of the 50 independent African countries.[6] Further, despite of its relatively weak economic position at the time, China gave aid worth $2.476 billion to 36 Africa countries, which accounted for 58% of China’s total foreign aid.[7] In addition, ‘China sent ten thousand engineers, doctors and technicians and undertook various infrastructure projects, one of which was the 1860-kilometer long Tanzania-Zambia railway, financed and built by China’. [8]

1980- 1990

This represents a fairly quiet period between Africa and China due to a number of reasons. First was the fact that China began its own economic reforms in 1978 and thus was preoccupied with implementing Deng Xiao Ping’s economic vision of opening up. This period also was the era of Tiananmen Square protest which, ‘ended China’s honeymoon relationship with the western countries’. [9]  Censured and isolated by the West, China re-evaluated its foreign policies.

 tiananmen-square-1989

1990- 2000

During this decade, President Jiang Zemin visited six African countries and put forward a “Five Points Proposal” for the development of a long-term, more structured cooperative relationship between China and African countries.[10] It eventually led to the creation of the Forum for China-African Cooperation in Beijing in 2000 which was the first formal step towards promoting Sino-African economic and trade cooperation.[11] During this time however, formal trade and investments between the two parties was still limited to a paltry $3.5-4 billion.

 

2000-2010

This era was crucial for Sino-African relations and witnessed a momentous increase in economic, political and even social interaction between Africa and China. Economically speaking, Sino-African trade grew:

At a rapid pace from $10.5 billion in 2000, to $ 29.4 billion in 2004, nearly $40 in 2005 and over $50 billion in 2006. In 2008 the volume reached $106.8 billion, with an average growth rate of 30 percent in eight straight years. By 2007 China had become the second largest trade partner second only to the United States, and the largest individual country exporter to sub-Saharan Africa with a market share of 9.8% and a volume of $26.5 billion.[12]

Economic interaction

In addition to trade the following have developed markedly between 2000 and 2010:

–  Investment

From 2004 to 2011 Chinese FDI to Africa grew seven-fold, at an average of 115% annually.[13] Indeed by 2009 ‘137 Chinese enterprises invested a total of 1.08 billion U.S. dollars in Africa’.[14] As of 2007, out of the 800 Chinese enterprises investing in Africa, only about 100 were state-owned indicating the growing presence of the Chinese private sector in Africa. Indeed, according to some estimates by 2010, ‘the number of private enterprises investing in Africa accounted for more than 70 percent of the total number of enterprises investing in Africa’.[15]  By 2005 China’s direct investment in Africa, amounted to US$392 million.[16]  As of 2010 this stood at $2.1 billion representing an average increase of increasing at an average of 115% year on year.[17]

–  Financial cooperation

During this period, China and several African countries entered agreements to avoid Double Taxation. This however was criticised as it was only formalised with 9 African countries.[18] By the end of 2009, ‘Africa had direct investments in 683 projects in Guangdong on processing, manufacturing, commerce and financial services, totaling $2.3 billion (contractual value)’.[19] Moreover between 2007 and 2009, China had developed preferential loans and export buyer’s credit worth $5 billion to support African infrastructural development.[20] In addition to this, ‘the Export-Import Bank of China (China Eximbank),the China Development Bank (CDB), the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) and other financial institutions extended substantial commercial loans to African countries’.[21] The Chinese also saw this time as an opportunity to expand their financial presence in Africa and did so through offering products and services in more than 50 African countries. Chinese financial institutions collaborated with regional and sub-regional financial institutions in Africa such as the African Development Bank’.[22] African financial institutions also settled in China and by 2009, six banks from Morocco, Cameroon, South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria set up at least one branch in China.[23] Bear in mind that this financial cooperation was affected by the 2009 Global Financial Crisis which, ‘hampered economic growth in both China and Africa’.[24] However this also gave China the opportunity to prove its commitment to Africa which it arguably did, at least in one case:

Due to the global financial crisis, the price of non-ferrous metal fell in 2009. However, China Nonferrous Metal Mining (Group) Company Ltd. applied a “no-cutbacks’ policy to the Chambishi Copper Mine. Of the seven foreign mining companies in Zambia, it was the only one that did not reduce production, investment or staff.[25]

 

Political interaction

 –   Political party exchanges

These types of exchanges began in 1950 and continued through to 2010. This often came in the form of High-ranking Communist Party of China (CPC) leaders leading delegations on visits to African countries.[26] The CPC also invited African leaders to visit China. These exchanges however tended to be focussed on the political party in power with limited relationships with parties not in power. Perhaps the interest from Africa was and is rooted in the fact that African political parties, especially those ruling parties, ‘ Hope to learn the experience of the CPC in party building and country construction’.[27] Given the longevity of the CPC in power and its commitment to a one party state, one wonders whether this bodes well for Africa.

–   Diplomatic cooperation

This area is perhaps the element for which began to receive high levels of criticism especially from the international community. This was primarily for two reasons: firstly, China began to clearly use the African continent as a scene of confrontation with Taiwan. Many African countries have severed diplomatic ties with Taiwan since staring serious interaction with China. Secondly, China continued to have economic and diplomatic relations with what were perceived to be rogue governments such as Sudan and Zimbabwe. However, in spite of such criticisms, China seems to fully understand the value of diplomacy and the use of soft power. All development efforts, technical cooperation, forgiveness of debt, the deployment of Chinese Peacekeeping troops to Africa and the establishment of niche funds such as the Fund for African Human Resources Development are activities that indicated that Africa was and will remain high on China’s diplomatic agenda.

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Social interaction

 –   Development assistance

It is estimated that between 1957 and 2006 Chinese development aid to Africa rose stood at $5.7 billion and between 2000 and 2003 the aid to Africa represented 44% of China’s total foreign aid. By 2009 this rose to $1.6 billion a year.[28] Development assistance also started to come in the form of free technical assistance offered to Africa by China.

–    Technical cooperation and training

During this period, this element became an important component of how China operated on the continent. Indeed, ‘Medical, agricultural and engineering teams have provided technical aid to African countries for decades to support everything from building projects to treating AIDS patients. Since 1963, some 15,000 Chinese doctors have worked in 47 African states treating nearly 180 million cases of HIV/AIDS’.[29] It became clear that Chinese technical aid to Africa was becoming increasingly important in building China’s influence in the region.[30]

–    Environmental pollution

During this era it became clear that China had a certain disregard to environmental standards, ‘Examples abound where Chinese companies were caught flouting conservation laws and collaborating with criminals in the exploitation of Africa’s natural assets’.[31] In Gabon in 2002 Sinopec a Chinese oil company was found, ‘prospecting for oil in one of Gabon’s national parks. The company was charged with mass pollution, dynamiting areas of the park and carving roads through the forest’. Such behaviour attracted heated criticism from environmental activists in particular.

–    Cultural exchange and mutual tourism

It was in this era that China started to promote, ‘air travel, ocean shipping, financial and tourism services, and encourage Chinese citizens to visit African countries’[32]. This era also saw the beginning of African countries actively working to attract Chinese tourists. Indeed, ‘In 2009, tourism bureaus and tourism enterprises from Egypt, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Namibia and South Africa, among others, attended the China International Travel Mart, tourism promotion conferences and other events. At the same time, Chinese companies began actively engaging in tourism services including opening travel agencies and catering companies, and participating in the construction of hotels.[33]

MOTIVATIONS FOR CHINA MOVING INTO AFRICA

Clearly China is very motivated to continue making inroads into the continent and entrench its presence here. What is motivating China to do so? Consider the points listed below:

–   Africa as a source of raw materials

This is an obvious point, ‘To power its booming economy, China needs natural resources – particularly oil, gas, coal and iron ore. In the past five years alone, mining exports to China have risen by 140 per cent’.[34] As a resource rich continent, China views Africa as a crucial partner in this. Indeed, ‘China is Africa’s biggest trading partner and gets a third of its oil needs from the continent’.[35] It is clearly it is in China’s interest to continue moving into Africa and secure as much of the raw materials on the continent as possible.

–   Destination for Chinese Outward Directed Investment (ODI)

In 2010, China overtook Japan and the United Kingdom to become the fifth-largest global investor…The nation’s ODI grew 1.8 percent year-on-year to $60 billion last year’.[36] Africa is becoming an increasingly important player in this and ‘Chinese ODI to Africa has increased 19-fold, from US$491.2 million in 2003 to US$9.3 billion in 2009’.[37] This can be seen as China’s, ‘concerted efforts to encourage investments in overseas markets to support economic development and sustain economic reform in China’.[38]

map-chinese-investments-in-africa

–    Fast growing export market

The African market fits China’s development plans. As China shifts production towards higher-value manufactured goods, Chinese exports to Africa are also moving up the value chain, from low-value textiles to high-value capital goods.[39] This market exists in the form of contracts as well, not just consumer goods. Indeed, ‘Africa has become China’s second largest engineering contract market. The dollar value of China’s contracted projects dwarfs its ODI in Africa.’[40] ODI and market expansion are synergistic in that ODI activities, ‘could help Chinese firms to expand in the African market and, at the same, get around the relatively high tariffs on manufacturing goods in Africa’.[41] These factors point to the power of this motivator.

–   Enhance Diplomatic Power

It is no secret that China, ‘has long sought to portray itself as the leader of the Third World’.[42] As part of its strategy to do so, Africa is a crucial partner to have. China’s commitment to this soft power is demonstrated in the fact that, in the third Africa- China Forum, ‘China canceled all debts relating to interest-free government loans that matured at the end of 2005 for the most indebted and least-developed African countries with diplomatic relations to China’.[43] This use of soft power falls in line with China’s commitment to continue its ‘peaceful rise’ in the global arena. The use of diplomacy could be seen as geared towards three main diplomatic purposes: ‘To help spread China’s message of mutual benefit and equality to African leaders, to create opportunities for Chinese businesses abroad, and to encourage African nations to support the “One China Policy” with respect to Taiwan’.[44]

CURRENT ECONOMIC DYNAMICS

In Africa today however things are fast changing for China and for Africa as detailed in this next section.

–   Growing power of Brazil and India on the continent

As per my previous articles, Brazil and India are increasingly moving into Africa with economic, social and political strategies. Indeed, ‘Led by a vibrant private sector, India’s bilateral trade with Africa has grown rapidly in recent years—from around $1 billion in 2001 to about $50 billion last year, the country’s officials are now targeting $70 billion by 2015’. For Brazil, ‘trade with Africa increased between 2000 and 2010 from US$4 billion to US$20 billion. In terms of FDI, the Brazilian government has been prioritizing FDI in Africa and increased FDI from about US$69 billion in 2001 to US$214 billion in 2009’.[45] Although they may lack the economic clout of China they each have distinct advantages that could work for them. For India, there are long cultural ties with Africa, East and South Africa in particular. Large numbers of Indians consider themselves African and it can be argued that most black Africans view Indians as fellow citizens who vote and contribute to African development. China does not have such ties with the continent. In Brazil’s case, there is a huge Black Diaspora in Brazil and thus a basic commonality that can be built on in Brazil’s interaction with Africa. Again, China does not have this advantage. Further, the IBSA forum is one between Brazil, India and South Africa to the exclusion of China. IBSA logo

–   Increased competition between African countries for Chinese funds

Another emerging dynamic is that more African countries are looking for Chinese funds and thus China can afford to be more selective than before. Indeed, ‘the collective “look east” policy embraced by African countries means there is a sense of a beauty contest as to which country gets funded and for which projects’.[46] This emerging dynamic is one that African countries ought to be cognisant of.

–   Economic losses is making China wary

China is getting a clearer understanding of what it means to do business with Africa. Losses have been made and this is making Beijing more cautious. For example, ‘more than $4bn worth of projects were suspended in Libya after the fall of Colonel Muammer Gaddafi and the kidnapping of 29 Chinese workers in Southern Sudan earlier this year’ is rubbing China the wrong way.[47] In addition, ‘Chinese companies are now driving harder bargains and avoiding some of the most chaotic corners of the continent… China’s Africa strategy seems to have matured, and deals are receiving much more scrutiny with respect to risk and return’.[48] The previous gusto and enthusiasm seems to have dissipated a bit, some hard lessons have been learnt.

–   Criticism of entry of China into Africa on economic grounds:

Europe and North America began criticising China’s interaction with Africa from the onset referring to it as neo- colonialism and not in Africa’s interest. Arguing that China is a resource- hungry dragon exploiting Africa’s natural resources, EuroAmerica led the anti-China finger-pointing and name calling. However, it is ironic that the very nations that divided up Africa and its peoples in the last quarter of the 19th century are accusing the Chinese of being neo-colonialists.[49] Nonetheless, although such commentaries may be rooted in jealousy and a desire to instil Sino-phobia in Africa, the arguments are based on some factual data. EuroAmerica points to China’s willingness to pay bribes in Africa. For example in Botswana, ‘Three top local managers of a Chinese construction company were charged with bribery after allegedly offering a high-ranking local civil servant 250,000 pula ($32,249) to overlook their shoddy construction of a local school in 2011[50]. In Zambia, ‘A Chinese national attempted to bribe police officers with K100 million in a desperate move to secure the release of his colleague, who was arrested for theft of copper’.[51] Others point to the fact that China tends to focus its investment on mineral rich nations and its economic interactions are mainly extractive in nature. Critics both outside and within Africa argue that, ‘there is little or no long-term benefit of the increase in trade to the continent as exports to China comprise mostly primary commodities such as oil and agricultural products’.[52] China is sensitive to such criticism and, ‘the Chinese worry about their reputation and the fact that there has been a lot of criticism’ due to its activities in Africa.[53] This will affect and inform China’s strategy on the continent.

–   Africa is increasingly perceiving the economic imbalance

President Zuma of South Africa is openly concerned about the emerging economic dynamics between Africa and China stating that, ‘this kind of (resource based) trade is unsustainable in the long term and need to be cautious when entering into new partnerships’.[54] China will increasingly be criticised and perhaps this is an inevitable element as seen in the criticism of the economic activities of other powers in Africa.

CURRENT POLITICAL DYNAMICS

 –   Criticism on entry of China into Africa on political grounds

China has long been accused of continuing to doing business with rogue governments that trample on human rights the most prominent examples being Sudan and Zimbabwe. It is no secret that critics continue to state that, ‘the no strings-attached aid policy pursued by the Chinese leads to a reduction in the pressure on governments to improve on issues such as human rights’.[55] Further, ‘Chinese support to dictators is seen as counterproductive to the welfare of the masses and as benefitting Africa’s elite’.[56]

–   Beginning a shift away from non-interference

As stated above, China has received harsh criticism regarding its non-interference policy in Africa. Incidentally, I argue that this supposed ‘hands-off’ policy never really applied as the Chinese government did support African regimes and interfered with local issues for example, ‘In Zimbabwe, China delivered propaganda bearing the insignia of Robert Mugabe’s incumbent political party prior to the 2005 election’.[57] However the official position has been to respect sovereignty. China has demonstrated it is sensitive to criticism directed at this policy. In fact, ‘In response to mounting criticisms surrounding its relations with Sudan, China changed its approach to the Darfur issue dramatically. Since mid-2006, there have been signs of increasing Chinese pressure on Khartoum to restrain its actions and accept UN peacekeeping plans’.[58] This indicates a dramatic shift in China’s diplomatic strategy.

–    Continued Opacity

Although, China has continued to take steps to improve transparency there are currently still some aspects of China’s trade policy regime (among others) that remain complex and opaque.  China ranked 38th among 48 countries in the 2009 Opacity Index, which measures the degree to which countries lack clear, accurate, easily discernible, and widely accepted practices governing the relationships among governments, businesses, and investors.[59] However, as China seeks to continue in its global rise, ‘Chinese authorities will have to give more and more attention to transparent governance arrangements’ both politically and economically speaking.[60]

–    Changes in the leadership of the Communist party: Uncertainty

Vice-President Xi Jinping will be confirmed President in March 2013. Although African leaders are certain China will continue in its commitment to Africa, the transition creates anxiety because, ‘with an uncertain global economic climate affecting China’s own growth, it is almost certain that the Chinese authorities will keep an eye on returns on investment’ and may not be as generous as the current administration has been.[61] All African governments and people can do is wait and see while strategising on how to enter more favourable economic interactions with China. This opacity is a dynamic that African nations have to continue to contend with.

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CURRENT SOCIAL DYNAMICS

–    Growing Cultural exchanges

Cultural exchanges continue between the two parties and this year there was an African festival of arts and culture in, ‘Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Changchun and other major Chinese cities, as part of a project named “2012 African Culture Focus,”’.[62] These are set to continue to grow.

–    Vocal commitment to better environmental behaviour

Perhaps in response to international outcry in response to its environmental behaviour, the environment and climate change are beginning to feature more prominently in China’s dealings with Africa. In the run up to the fifth Forum on China-Africa Cooperation the following was stated, ‘With a view to improving African countries’ abilities to adapt to climate change, China implemented 105 clean energy projects in African countries…and sent senior officials including the special envoy for climate change negotiations to African countries to exchange views’.[63] This push for environmental responsibility also comes from Africans themselves, ‘African leaders and independent groups are pressing China to prioritize sustainable development in its trade with African countries. In Beijing, officials say they increasingly recognize the importance of sound environmental practices for building strong relations with the continent’.[64] Time will tell if actions match intention.

–    Chinese settlement and rising racial issues

As more Chinese move into Africa it can be said that, ‘the sudden increasing appearance of Chinese settlers in Africa has caused uneasiness among Africans, especially in the light of the immigrants’ low skill level and their apparently limited financial means’.[65] This links to another issue that Africans have with China, namely importing labour from China for projects done in Africa thereby limiting job creation opportunities for locals. Some Africans resent such behaviour. As a result of these factors, there is an emerging reality that, ‘several anti-Chinese movements have erupted in African countries, and strong resentment, boarding on racism, is emerging against the Chinese’.[66] This racial tension is not only found in Africa, but in China too, ‘Hundreds of Africans in Guangzhou blocked traffic and surrounded the police station to protest the death of a Nigerian man and demanded an investigation. According to witnesses, the demonstrators threw rocks at police and private vehicles’.[67] It is crucial that such emerging dynamics, which can easily erupt into race- fuelled incidents, be strategically managed by both sides.

africa1

As Sino-African cooperation continues to develop, it is crucial that Africans perceive the pros and cons of such an arrangement. This shall be explored in Part 2.


[4] Jianbo, Luo & Xiaomin, Zhang, “China’s African Policy and its Soft Power”, in AntePodium, Victoria University of Wellington, 2009
[5] Anshan, Li, (2007), ‘China and Africa: Policy and Challenges, China Security Vol. 3 No. 3 Summer 2007, http://hawk.ethz.ch/serviceengine/Files/ISN/44747/ichaptersection_singledocument/e83d676e-0584-4c99-b984-f39131478c29/en/cs7_04.pdf

[7] Jianbo, Luo & Xiaomin, Zhang, “China’s African Policy and its Soft Power”, in AntePodium, Victoria University of Wellington, 2009

[11] China Internet Information  (2003), ‘China-Africa Cooperation Forum: Past, Present and Future’,  http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/China-Africa/82189.htm

[13] China’s Foreign trade, Beyond Trade – China-Africa investment trends

http://cft.ccpit.org/ccpit-cft/a/zuixinzhongyingwenzazhi/China_s_Foreign_Trade/Re/2012/0919/1084.html

[14] Forum on Africa- China Cooperation (2009), ‘Chinese investment buoys Africa’s economy, http://www.focac.org/eng/zxxx/t857722.htm

[15] China Business News (2010), ‘China to encourage private investment in Africa’, http://cnbusinessnews.com/china-to-encourage-private-investment-in-africa/

[16] Jian-Ye Wang(2007), ‘What Drives China’s Growing Role in Africa?’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2007/wp07211.pdf

[17] China’s Foreign trade, Beyond Trade – China-Africa investment trends

http://cft.ccpit.org/ccpit-cft/a/zuixinzhongyingwenzazhi/China_s_Foreign_Trade/Re/2012/0919/1084.html

[18] China Double Taxation Prevention Treaties 2012,  http://www.worldwide-tax.com/china/chi_double.asp

[19] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[20] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[21] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[22] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[23] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[24] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[25] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf

[26] China Org (2012), ‘Inter-party relations promote Sino-African strategic partnership’, http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2012-08/28/content_26353120_2.htm

[27] China Org (2012), ‘Inter-party relations promote Sino-African strategic partnership’, http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2012-08/28/content_26353120_2.htm
[29] Thompson, Drew (2010), ‘Economic Growth and Soft Power: China’s Africa Strategy’, China Brief Volume,http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3699
[30] Thompson, Drew (2010), ‘Economic Growth and Soft Power: China’s Africa Strategy’, China Brief Volume,http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3699
[31] Taylor, Ian (2007), ‘China’s environmental footprint in Africa’, http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/741-China-s-environmental-footprint-in-Africa
[32] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[33] Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic cooperation (2010), ‘China Africa trade and Economic Relationship: Annual report 2010’, http://www.fahamu.org/downloads/China-Africa_Trade_and_Economic_Relationship_Annual_Report_2010.pdf
[34] Australian Strategic Policy Institute (2012), ‘FUELLING THE DRAGON: Natural resources and China’s development,The Brenthurst Foundation, http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/Files/Brenthurst_Commisioned_Reports/Brenthurst-Special-Report-Fuelling-the-Dragon.pdf
[35] Australian Strategic Policy Institute (2012), ‘FUELLING THE DRAGON: Natural resources and China’s development,The Brenthurst Foundation, http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/Files/Brenthurst_Commisioned_Reports/Brenthurst-Special-Report-Fuelling-the-Dragon.pdf

[36] Ding Qingfen (2012), Chinese firms’ growing ODI offers world opportunities

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2012-07/10/content_15563185.htm

[37] Australian Strategic Policy Institute (2012), ‘Fuelling The Dragon: Natural resources and China’s development,The Brenthurst Foundation, http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/Files/Brenthurst_Commisioned_Reports/Brenthurst-Special-Report-Fuelling-the-Dragon.pdf

[38] Cheung,Yin-Wong, Jakob De Haan, Xingwang Qian And Shu Yu, (2011), ‘China’s Outward Direct Investment In Africa’ Hong Kong Institute For Monetary Research, Http://Poseidon01.Ssrn.Com/Delivery.Php?ID=074071112000083000023096000120080025056018064054034063029004091123094064075117082077004031019026053056124092121080113116018124118039014012004010007108086087123120053043031009002118111025072105089029010&EXT=Pdf

[39] China’s Foreign trade, Beyond Trade – China-Africa investment trends

http://cft.ccpit.org/ccpit-cft/a/zuixinzhongyingwenzazhi/China_s_Foreign_Trade/Re/2012/0919/1084.html

[40] Australian Strategic Policy Institute (2012), ‘FUELLING THE DRAGON: Natural resources and China’s development,The Brenthurst Foundation, http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/Files/Brenthurst_Commisioned_Reports/Brenthurst-Special-Report-Fuelling-the-Dragon.pdf
[41] Australian Strategic Policy Institute (2012), ‘FUELLING THE DRAGON: Natural resources and China’s development,The Brenthurst Foundation, http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/Files/Brenthurst_Commisioned_Reports/Brenthurst-Special-Report-Fuelling-the-Dragon.pdf
[42] Thompson, Drew (2010), ‘Economic Growth and Soft Power: China’s Africa Strategy’, China Brief Volume, http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3699
[43] Cheung,Yin-Wong, Jakob De Haan, Xingwang Qian And Shu Yu, (2011), ‘China’s Outward Direct Investment In Africa’ Hong Kong Institute For Monetary Research, Http://Poseidon01.Ssrn.Com/Delivery.Php?ID=074071112000083000023096000120080025056018064054034063029004091123094064075117082077004031019026053056124092121080113116018124118039014012004010007108086087123120053043031009002118111025072105089029010&EXT=Pdf
[44] Parenti, Jennifer (2012), ‘China-Africa Relations in the 21st Century’, http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-52/23.pdf
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[47] Hook, Leslie (2012) ‘Zuma warns on Africa’s ties to China’, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/33686fc4-d171-11e1-bbbc-00144feabdc0.html

[48] Abrams, Stan (2012), ‘China Shifts Its Africa Investment Strategy’, Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/sites/china/2010/04/28/china-shifts-its-africa-investment-strategy/

[49] Safdar, Tayyab  (2012), ‘ China’s growing influence in Africa’, The Express Tribune, http://tribune.com.pk/story/428026/chinas-growing-influence-in-africa/

[50] Palmer James (2012), ‘Bribery brings red envelopes to Botswana’, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/728010.shtml

[51] Sang’andu, Etambuyu(2012), ‘ Zambia: Chinese Dangles K100 Million Bribe – As Cops Bust Copper Theft Scandal in Kitwe’ , http://allafrica.com/stories/201210171007.html

[52] Safdar, Tayyab  (2012), ‘ China’s growing influence in Africa’, The Express Tribune, http://tribune.com.pk/story/428026/chinas-growing-influence-in-africa/
[53] Abrams, Stan (2012), ‘China Shifts Its Africa Investment Strategy’, Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/sites/china/2010/04/28/china-shifts-its-africa-investment-strategy/
[54] Mancheri,Nabeel  (2012),China’s “Chequebook” Diplomacy in Africa, Foreign Policy Journal, http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2012/08/17/chinas-chequebook-diplomacy-in-africa/
[55] Safdar, Tayyab  (2012), ‘ China’s growing influence in Africa’, The Express Tribune, http://tribune.com.pk/story/428026/chinas-growing-influence-in-africa/
[56] Safdar, Tayyab  (2012), ‘ China’s growing influence in Africa’, The Express Tribune, http://tribune.com.pk/story/428026/chinas-growing-influence-in-africa/
[57] Parenti, Jennifer (2012), ‘China-Africa Relations in the 21st Century’, http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-52/23.pdf

[58] Wu, Chengqiu  (2009), ‘Sovereignty, Human Rights, and Responsibility: Changes in China’s Response to International Humanitarian Crises’, Journal of Chinese Political Science, http://www.sirpa.fudan.edu.cn/picture/article/56/2f873cfa-6810-4d7b-9f1a-c097ddfbf4f9/f4b11df1-5cb5-4d7e-8345-1253f152a162.pdf

[59] World trade Organisation (2010), ‘China: Trade policy regime:  framework and objectives’, http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/s230-02_e.doc

[60] Australian Strategic Policy Institute (2012), ‘Fuelling The Dragon: Natural resources and China’s development,The Brenthurst Foundation, http://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/Files/Brenthurst_Commisioned_Reports/Brenthurst-Special-Report-Fuelling-the-Dragon.pdf
[62] Forum on China- Africa Cooperation , ‘African culture promoted in China’, http://www.focac.org/eng/zfgx/rwjl/t936170.htm
[63] Yang, Jiechi (2012), ‘Take the New Type of China-Africa Strategic Partnership to a New High’, http://ke.china-embassy.org/eng/zfgx/t952701.htm
[64] Van Sant (2012), Shannon Africans Urge China to Help Create Sustainable Development, VOAhttp://www.voanews.com/content/africans_urge_china_to_help_creating_sustainable_development_in_africa/1443475.html
[67] Jincui , Yu (2012), ‘ Racial tensions a new challenge for emerging China’, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/716268.shtml

4 thoughts on “CHINA AND AFRICA: WHAT’S THE DEAL? PART 1

    Allan Gohole said:
    December 17, 2012 at 6:17 am

    great stuff

    George Ochenge said:
    December 17, 2012 at 8:11 am

    By the time the Chinese are done with us, we will be so much the poorer, with little voice to cry of wisdom to regret our blindness… I am just saying..

    lutivs said:
    January 23, 2013 at 2:49 am

    Thank you for this!

    Recently, I was at the bus stop minding my own business when a fellow grad. student from China asked me what country I was from. So I told him Kenya..he talked about Kenyan Athletes and then just dropped the fact that China helped to build the railway in Zambia and Tanzania because in his words, “No one wanted to help them export their copper” So I lost my temper, fortunately the bus came and saved both us.

    nawiri nerima said:
    May 14, 2013 at 12:56 pm

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